Organisé par : Dominique Sportiche (ENS / UCLA)
Le Département d’études cognitives de l’École normale supérieure de Paris organise sa septième École internationale d’automne en linguistique (EALing). Cette école interdisciplinaire se donne comme objectif de présenter certains aspects de la théorie linguistique formelle et quelques approches en sciences cognitives fondées sur des modèles de grammaire issus de telles théories. Le contenu des cours varie d’année en année mais inclut généralement :
– des introductions générales à la recherche contemporaine en linguistique,
– des cours intensifs d’introduction à quelques domaines centraux de la théorie linguistique,
– des séminaires et conférences portant sur des sujets de recherches en cours,
– des séminaires de discussion sur les rapports entre les recherches sur la théorie de la grammaire et des domaines connexes (linguistique computationnelle, neuro-imagerie, neuro-linguistique, psycho-linguistique).
Ressources en ligne
- The Complexity of Syntactic Structures: Evidence from Linguistics and Psycholinguistics (le 18 septembre 2009) — Luigi Rizzi
If minimalist syntax is on the right track, the mechanism generating syntactic structures is extremely simple, basically reducing to merge and the featural properties that it satisfies. Nevertheless, the recursive applications of merge can create very rich representations, which may raise complexity issues. In this course I would like to address the questions of syntactic complexity from both angles of linguistic theory and experimental psycholinguistics with children and adults. Here are some of the topics I would like to cover:
– The complexity of configurations and the cartography of syntactic structures,
– Locality and delimitation principles as constraints on complex dependencies,
– Intervention effects in production and comprehension in children and adults.
Courses (handouts downloadable):
1/ September 18, 2009 at 9:30 am,
2/ September 19, 2009 at 9:30 am,
3/ September 21, 2009 at 9:30 am,
4/ September 22, 2009 at 9:30 am.
- Scalar Implicatures and Grammar (le 18 septembre 2009) — Benjamin Spector
In recent years, pragmatics has started being studied with as rigorous techniques as those used in formal semantics, giving rise to the relatively new field of Formal Pragmatics. One of the results of this trend has been that certain widely accepted assumptions about the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics have been challenged. We will focus on one particular type of inference, known as scalar implicatures, whose status is currently under debate; while the traditional, Gricean view conceives of them as paradigmatic cases of pragmatic inferences, it has been recently argued that they should rather be thought of as a grammatical phenomenon. We will present in a detailed way some of the arguments of the two sides of this debate. After the course’s four classes, there will be an additional special session in which Emmanuel Chemla will present an experimental study which we carried out recently, and whose results bear on the debate between the purely pragmatic approach to scalar implicatures and the grammatical approach.
Courses (handouts downloadable):
1/ September 18, 2009 at 11:00 am,
2/ September 19, 2009 at 11:00 am,
3/ September 21, 2009 at 11:00 am,
4/ September 22, 2009 at 11:00 am.
- Neuro-imaging of Syntax and Sentence Processing (le 18 septembre 2009) — Asaf Bachrach
• Talk I: This talk will be composed of three parts. The first section will consist of a brief introduction to neurolinguistics and the Broca/Wernicke model. An effort will be made to distinguish between a performance and a competence perspective on the instantiation of language in the brain. In the second part of the talk I will present some fundamental concepts and techniques in brain imaging (with particular focus on fMRI). The third part of the talk will consist of a critical review of recent paradigms and results in the domain of neuroimaging of sentence processing and syntax.
• Talk II: In this talk I will focus on my own neuro-imaging work. I will first present fMRI results of the manipulation of probabilistic and structural measures during naturalistic on-line sentence processing. Then, I will present data from on-going research where we distinguish between the effect of the complexity of the syntactic structure and the complexity of its (phase-wise) derivation.
1/ (no recording) September 18, 2009 at 15:30 pm,
2/ September 19, 2009 at 15:30 pm.
- SIGMA Lectures: Events and the Mass/Count Distinction (le 18 septembre 2009) — Roger Schwarzschild
There is a commonly held view that verbs are predicates of events. In this talk, I will advance the hypothesis that: nouns are predicates of events as well. Boy, for example, is true of an event whose sole participant is a boy. In this framework, whether or not some event is in the extension of a particular noun will depend on:
(a) the nature of the participants in the event,
(b) the number of participants,
(c) relations among participants.
By allowing (a) to be just one component in the meaning of a noun, it becomes easier to outline a semantic basis for the mass/count distinction with the following character. On the one hand, facts about the referents of a noun phrase influence the categorization of the head nouns: properties of water and of dogs, surely are relevant to the status of the nouns water and dog. On the other hand, properties of referents shouldn’t determine the status of the head, for as has often been observed, co-referential noun phrases can differ in the mass/count status of their head nouns.
Courses (handout downloadable):
1/ (no recording) September 18, 2009 at 17:15 pm,
2/ September 19, 2009 at 17:15 pm,
3/ September 21, 2009 at 17:15 pm,
4/ September 22, 2009 at 17:15 pm.
- Scalar Implicatures: Experimental Evidence (le 22 septembre 2009) — Emmanuel Chemla
There is currently a debate between proponents of pragmatic and grammatical accounts of scalar implicatures. In his lectures, Benjamin Spector will introduce the phenomenon and the main arguments present in the theoretical literature which pertain to this pragmatic/grammatical debate. In recent years, there have been experimental studies of this issue as well, most of which providing evidence in favor of pragmatic accounts. I will present new experimental results which (i) show that under certain conditions we can elicit so-called local implicatures, a phenomenon only predicted by grammatical approaches, and (ii) show however that local implicatures are more widespread than what current grammatical approaches predict.
Prerequisites: This class will complement well the material presented in Benjamin Spector’s course, but no background should be necessary to benefit from the methodological and theoretical discussions.
Course (handout downloadable):
September 22, 2009 at 15:30 pm.
Dominique Sportiche (ENS / UCLA)
professeur associé au Département d’études cognitives de l’ENS, professeur à l’Université de Californie à Los Angeles (UCLA), linguistique.